In 1610 Galileo published “Sidereus Nuncius” which outlined his observations he had made why researching the universe, which talked about moons around Jupiter and other wild stuff.
In 1616 the inquisition declared the theory’s expressed to be heretical and his books were banned. He was ordered not to hold meetings, teach or defend his views, but being slight stubborn, he then went on to come up with a theory of tides that further pushed the boundaries.
He then came up with his “Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems” where he defended the theory of Hellocenterism (the sun is the centre) it became a popular text and further added pressure to reevaluate the world view.
As a response to this and the issues they were having with this new upstart counter-culture we now call science, the inquisition convicted him of heresy, and he was placed under house arrest till his death.
The whole story has many points whare his approach to science, religion and philosophy pushed him against the church and their inability to discuss brought things to ahead. It is worth reading.
Today we learn the science that developed from his and others theory’s, the thinking that grew from it is responsible for much of what we take for granted today.
This is why we need free speech; this is why we need debate and scientific challenge.